Mensaje de Juliana

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La merenguera Juliana Oneal, quien ha librado varias batallas contra el cáncer, sorprendió esta noche al público presentes en los Premios Soberanos, al expresar un mensaje de fortaleza y creencia en que, independientemente de la circunstancias, se puede salir airoso de las pruebas que se le presentan en la vida.

“En un mundo donde cada día es más difícil ser uno mismo, o saber qué camino tomar, y pesar de que en una u otra circunstancia nos hace creer que no tenemos la fortaleza para seguir o la voluntad y la determinación para luchar, personalmente puedo decir de que estoy cien por ciento segura de que rendirse no es una opción”, expresó la cantante en medio de aplausos del público.

“He visto el rostro de personas valientes que luchan para amanecer cada día con una sonrisa, a pesar de que en su vida existe una nube gris. Porque cada uno de nosotros, a nuestra manera, está librando una batalla. En diferentes etapa de nuestras vidas nos enfrentamos a pruebas y dificultades que intentan derrumbarnos y en mi caso, a pesar de ella, he decidido simplemente no quedarme ahí, he decidido seguir adelante”, agregó.

Sostuvo que aún con sus defectos y errores, consideró importante aprender a aceptarse y quererse uno mismo. “Hoy puedo decir que estoy muy orgullosa de ser una mujer soñadora, incansable… nunca he perdido la fe en que todo estará bien”.

Concluyó en que es necesario aprender en vivir en agradecimiento, “ya que cada despertar es una bendición y un privilegio, porque hay muchas personas que no lo hicieron… (lágrimas) y mañana nosotros mismos no tenemos la certeza de que estaremos aquí”.


The MBA is a terminal degree and a professional degree.[2][3] Accreditation bodies specifically for MBA programs ensure consistency and quality of education. Business schools in many countries offer programs tailored to full-time, part-time, executive (abridged coursework typically occurring on nights or weekends) and distance learning students, many with specialized concentrations.

A LEADER IN ATTORNEY, COPY & MESSENGER SERVICES For over two decades, Advanced Attorney Services, Inc. has been a leading Attorney, Copy and Messenger services provider in Southern California. With a wide range of business solutions offered, Advanced is committed to superior service standards by providing our clients with new and innovative methods of operating to ensure the highest quality of services available at competitive rates. If your firm is in need of immediate or same day court service, process service, deposition services, writ services, fax filings, E-Filings, messenger, on or off-site copy services, as well as a wide range of other services, allow Advanced Attorney Services to get the job done right.A lawyer referral service maintains a network of lawyers, and connects people in need of lawyers with its participating attorneys. A potential client who contacts a lawyer referral service is directed to a lawyer who practices in the area of law that is most appropriate for their situation. Some lawyer referral services charge a fee for providing a referral, while others provide referrals at no cost to the prospective client. Many referral services connect prospective clients with lawyers who have agreed to provide a low-cost or free initial consultation.[1] Referral services are often provided by state and local bar associations as a public service. Referral services may also be offered by non-profit organizations and advocacy groups. For-profit referral services[1] may connect lawyers with clients who pay a membership fee, or a fee for successfully referred clients, subject to rules against sharing fees with non-lawyers.[2] Historically, lawyer referral services involved prospective clients contacting a bar association or responding to an advertisement, by placing a telephone call to the service and seeking a referral. [3] With the internet boom in the 1990s, many consumers turned to the web to search for goods and services.[4] A research study released in 2012, shows that 76 percent of adult consumers looking for a lawyer used online resources at some point during the search process.[5]Some referral services provide referrals to lawyers in a broad range of areas of legal practice. Others may focus on referrals within a narrow range of practice areas, or a single practice area.[6] Online lawyer referral services are sometimes called attorney-client matching services. People who contact a service may be matched with one or more attorneys, based upon such factors as area of legal practice and geographic location. Lawyers who participate in these services may pay a fee for participation, a fee for each referral, or in some cases a percentage of the amount charged to a referred client.[7] In some cases the prospective client will be able to choose from a list of referred attorneys, while in other cases the referral will be made to a specific participating lawyer.[8] If a client is unable to afford a lawyer and the legal problem is not a matter that can be handled by a lawyer on a percentage fee basis, some referral services may attempt to match the client with a pro bono lawyer, or direct the client to contact a legal aid organization or law student clinic for help.[9] Ethical issues may arise for lawyers who participate in for-profit referral services, and state rules governing participation can vary significantly.[10][11][12] Some referral services are certified by bar associations,[13] including the American Bar Association.[14] Certified referral services must maintain standards of service as defined by the certifying organization. Among those standards, certification may require that participating lawyers meet minimum standards of experience, or maintain legal malpractice insurance. The American Bar Association provides a list attorney referral services that meet its certification requirements.[15] Some legal associations have expressed concern that lawyer referral services can lead to lawyers trying to undercut each other to get clients, rather than focusing on quality of service and the development of their reputation among their peers.[16] Another concern about lawyer referral services relates to client confidentiality. When a prospective client contacts a lawyer directly about retaining the lawyer’s services, the communication is normally held absolutely confidential under principles of attorney-client privilege. Where a lawyer referral service collects information from a person who is seeking a lawyer, that information will not normally be confidential, raising the possibility that information provided to the referral service will be discoverable by the opposing party in any subsequent litigation.[17] Lawyer referral services may have minimal requirements for participation, and in some cases may not do any verification of a lawyer’s qualification or credentials. As a consequence, it remains necessary for a person who uses a referral service to investigate a lawyer’s qualification before retaining the lawyer.[7] Some controversy also arises from whether professional referral services are anti-competitive in nature.[citation needed] For instance, since Board Certified attorneys often charge a higher hourly rate than other competent general practitioners, if a Lawyer Referral Service requires Board Certification for certain types of referrals, instead of merely providing the public a choice between a Board Certified attorney and a competent attorney who is not Board Certified, the effect may be to restrict competition and restrict public choice and push up consumer prices.[citation needed] State bars, which license attorneys, may be complicit in restricting client choice.[citation needed]


Full-time MBA programs normally take place over two academic years (i.e. approximately 18 months of term time). For example, in the Northern Hemisphere they often begin in late August or early September of year one and continue until May or June of year two, with a three to four month summer break in between years one and two. Students enter with a reasonable amount of prior real-world work experience and take classes during weekdays like other university students. A typical full-time, accelerated, part-time, or modular MBA requires 60 credits (600 class hours) of graduate work.[25] Accelerated MBA programs are a variation of the two-year programs. They involve a higher course load with more intense class and examination schedules and are usually condensed into one year. They usually have less down time during the program and between semesters. For example, there is no three to four-month summer break, and between semesters there might be seven to ten days off rather than three to five weeks vacation. Accelerated programs typically have a lower cost than full-time two-year programs. Part-time MBA programs normally hold classes on weekday evenings after normal working hours, or on weekends. Part-time programs normally last three years or more. The students in these programs typically consist of working professionals, who take a light course load for a longer period of time until the graduation requirements are met. Evening (second shift) MBA programs are full-time programs that normally hold classes on weekday evenings, after normal working hours, or on weekends for a duration of two years. The students in these programs typically consist of working professionals, who can not leave their work to pursue a full-time regular shift MBA. Most second shift programs are offered at universities in India. Modular MBA programs are similar to part-time programs, although typically employing a lock-step curriculum with classes packaged together in blocks lasting from one to three weeks. Executive MBA (EMBA) programs developed to meet the educational needs of managers and executives, allowing students to earn an MBA (or another business-related graduate degree) in two years or less while working full-time. Participants come from every type and size of organization – profit, nonprofit, government – representing a variety of industries. EMBA students typically have a higher level of work experience, often 10 years or more, compared to other MBA students. In response to the increasing number of EMBA programs offered, The Executive MBA Council was formed in 1981 to advance executive education. Full-time executive MBA programs are a new category of full-time 1 year MBA programs aimed at professionals with approx. 5 years or more. They are primarily offered in countries like India where the 2-year MBA program is targeted at fresh graduates with no experience or minimal experience. These full-time executive MBA programs are similar to 1 year MBA programs offered by schools like Insead and IMD. Distance learning MBA programs hold classes off-campus. These programs can be offered in a number of different formats: correspondence courses by postal mail or email, non-interactive broadcast video, pre-recorded video, live teleconference or videoconference, offline or online computer courses. Many schools offer these programs. Blended learning programs combine distance learning with face-to-face instruction.[26] These programs typically target working professionals who are unable to attend traditional part-time programs.[27] MBA dual degree programs combine an MBA with others (such as an MS, MA, or a JD, etc.) to let students cut costs (dual programs usually cost less than pursuing 2 degrees separately), save time on education and to tailor the business education courses to their needs. This is generally achieved by allowing core courses of one program count as electives in the other. Some business schools offer programs in which students can earn both a bachelor’s degree in business administration and an MBA in five years. Mini-MBA is a term used by many non-profit and for-profit institutions to describe a training regimen focused on the fundamentals of business. In the past, Mini-MBA programs have typically been offered as non-credit bearing courses that require less than 100 hours of total learning. However, due to the criticisms of these certificates, many schools have now shifted their programs to offer courses for full credit so that they may be applied towards a complete traditional MBA degree. This is to allow students to verify business related coursework for employment purposes and still allow the option to complete a full-time MBA degree program at a later period, if they elect to do so.


Life insurance (or life assurance, especially in the Commonwealth of Nations) is a contract between an insurance policy holder and an insurer or assurer, where the insurer promises to pay a designated beneficiary a sum of money (the benefit) in exchange for a premium, upon the death of an insured person (often the policy holder). Depending on the contract, other events such as terminal illness or critical illness can also trigger payment. The policy holder typically pays a premium, either regularly or as one lump sum. Other expenses, such as funeral expenses, can also be included in the benefits. Life policies are legal contracts and the terms of the contract describe the limitations of the insured events. Specific exclusions are often written into the contract to limit the liability of the insurer; common examples are claims relating to suicide, fraud, war, riot, and civil commotion. Life-based contracts tend to fall into two major categories: Protection policies – designed to provide a benefit, typically a lump sum payment, in the event of a specified occurrence. A common form—more common in years past—of a protection policy design is term insurance. Investment policies – the main objective of these policies is to facilitate the growth of capital by regular or single premiums. Common forms (in the U.S.) are whole life, universal life, and variable life policies. Parties to contract The person responsible for making payments for a policy is the policy owner, while the insured is the person whose death will trigger payment of the death benefit. The owner and insured may or may not be the same person. For example, if Joe buys a policy on his own life, he is both the owner and the insured. But if Jane, his wife, buys a policy on Joe’s life, she is the owner and he is the insured. The policy owner is the guarantor and he will be the person to pay for the policy. The insured is a participant in the contract, but not necessarily a party to it. Chart of a life insurance The beneficiary receives policy proceeds upon the insured person’s death. The owner designates the beneficiary, but the beneficiary is not a party to the policy. The owner can change the beneficiary unless the policy has an irrevocable beneficiary designation. If a policy has an irrevocable beneficiary, any beneficiary changes, policy assignments, or cash value borrowing would require the agreement of the original beneficiary. In cases where the policy owner is not the insured (also referred to as the celui qui vit or CQV), insurance companies have sought to limit policy purchases to those with an insurable interest in the CQV. For life insurance policies, close family members and business partners will usually be found to have an insurable interest. The insurable interest requirement usually demonstrates that the purchaser will actually suffer some kind of loss if the CQV dies. Such a requirement prevents people from benefiting from the purchase of purely speculative policies on people they expect to die. With no insurable interest requirement, the risk that a purchaser would murder the CQV for insurance proceeds would be great. In at least one case, an insurance company which sold a policy to a purchaser with no insurable interest (who later murdered the CQV for the proceeds), was found liable in court for contributing to the wrongful death of the victim (Liberty National Life v. Weldon, 267 Ala.171 (1957)). Contract terms Special exclusions may apply, such as suicide clauses, whereby the policy becomes null and void if the insured commits suicide within a specified time (usually two years after the purchase date; some states provide a statutory one-year suicide clause). Any misrepresentations by the insured on the application may also be grounds for nullification. Most US states specify a maximum contestability period, often no more than two years. Only if the insured dies within this period will the insurer have a legal right to contest the claim on the basis of misrepresentation and request additional information before deciding whether to pay or deny the claim. The face amount of the policy is the initial amount that the policy will pay at the death of the insured or when the policy matures, although the actual death benefit can provide for greater or lesser than the face amount. The policy matures when the insured dies or reaches a specified age (such as 100 years old). Costs, insurability, and underwriting The insurance company calculates the policy prices (premiums) at a level sufficient to fund claims, cover administrative costs, and provide a profit. The cost of insurance is determined using mortality tables calculated by actuaries. Mortality tables are statistically based tables showing expected annual mortality rates of people at different ages. Put simply, people are more likely to die as they get older and the mortality tables enable the insurance companies to calculate the risk and increase premiums with age accordingly. Such estimates can be important in taxation regulation.[8][9] In the 1980s and 1990s, the SOA 1975–80 Basic Select & Ultimate tables were the typical reference points, while the 2001 VBT and 2001 CSO tables were published more recently. As well as the basic parameters of age and gender, the newer tables include separate mortality tables for smokers and non-smokers, and the CSO tables include separate tables for preferred classes.[10] The mortality tables provide a baseline for the cost of insurance, but the health and family history of the individual applicant is also taken into account (except in the case of Group policies). This investigation and resulting evaluation is termed underwriting. Health and lifestyle questions are asked, with certain responses possibly meriting further investigation. Specific factors that may be considered by underwriters include: Personal medical history[11] Family medical history[12] Driving record[13] Height and weight matrix, otherwise known as BMI (Body Mass Index)[14] Based on the above and additional factors, applicants will be placed into one of several classes of health ratings which will determine the premium paid in exchange for insurance at that particular carrier.[13] Life insurance companies in the United States support the Medical Information Bureau (MIB),[15] which is a clearing house of information on persons who have applied for life insurance with participating companies in the last seven years. As part of the application, the insurer often requires the applicant’s permission to obtain information from their physicians.[16] Automated Life Underwriting is a technology solution which is designed to perform all or some of the screening functions traditionally completed by underwriters, and thus seeks to reduce the work effort, time and/or data necessary to underwrite a life insurance application.[17] These systems allow point of sale distribution and can shorten the time frame for issuance from weeks or even months to hours or minutes, depending on the amount of insurance being purchased.[18] The mortality of underwritten persons rises much more quickly than the general population. At the end of 10 years, the mortality of that 25-year-old, non-smoking male is 0.66/1000/year. Consequently, in a group of one thousand 25-year-old males with a $100,000 policy, all of average health, a life insurance company would have to collect approximately $50 a year from each participant to cover the relatively few expected claims. (0.35 to 0.66 expected deaths in each year × $100,000 payout per death = $35 per policy.) Other costs, such as administrative and sales expenses, also need to be considered when setting the premiums. A 10-year policy for a 25-year-old non-smoking male with preferred medical history may get offers as low as $90 per year for a $100,000 policy in the competitive US life insurance market. Most of the revenue received by insurance companies consists of premiums, but revenue from investing the premiums forms an important source of profit for most life insurance companies. Group Insurance policies are an exception to this. In the United States, life insurance companies are never legally required to provide coverage to everyone, with the exception of Civil Rights Act compliance requirements. Insurance companies alone determine insurability, and some people are deemed uninsurable. The policy can be declined or rated (increasing the premium amount to compensate for the higher risk), and the amount of the premium will be proportional to the face value of the policy. Many companies separate applicants into four general categories. These categories are preferred best, preferred, standard, and tobacco. Preferred best is reserved only for the healthiest individuals in the general population. This may mean, that the proposed insured has no adverse medical history, is not under medication, and has no family history of early-onset cancer, diabetes, or other conditions.[19] Preferred means that the proposed insured is currently under medication and has a family history of particular illnesses. Most people are in the standard category. People in the tobacco category typically have to pay higher premiums due to the higher mortality. Recent US mortality tables predict that roughly 0.35 in 1,000 non-smoking males aged 25 will die during the first year of a policy.[20] Mortality approximately doubles for every extra ten years of age, so the mortality rate in the first year for non-smoking men is about 2.5 in 1,000 people at age 65.[20] Compare this with the US population male mortality rates of 1.3 per 1,000 at age 25 and 19.3 at age 65 (without regard to health or smoking status).[21] Death proceeds Upon the insured’s death, the insurer requires acceptable proof of death before it pays the claim. The normal minimum proof required is a death certificate, and the insurer’s claim form completed, signed, and typically notarized.[citation needed] If the insured’s death is suspicious and the policy amount is large, the insurer may investigate the circumstances surrounding the death before deciding whether it has an obligation to pay the claim. Payment from the policy may be as a lump sum or as an annuity, which is paid in regular installments for either a specified period or for the beneficiary’s lifetime.[22] Insurance vs assurance The specific uses of the terms “insurance” and “assurance” are sometimes confused. In general, in jurisdictions where both terms are used, “insurance” refers to providing coverage for an event that might happen (fire, theft, flood, etc.), while “assurance” is the provision of coverage for an event that is certain to happen. In the United States, both forms of coverage are called “insurance” for reasons of simplicity in companies selling both products.[citation needed] By some definitions, “insurance” is any coverage that determines benefits based on actual losses whereas “assurance” is coverage with predetermined benefits irrespective of the losses incurred. Life insurance may be divided into two basic classes: temporary and permanent; or the following subclasses: term, universal, whole life, and endowment life insurance. Term insurance Main article: Term life insurance Term assurance provides life insurance coverage for a specified term. The policy does not accumulate cash value. Term insurance is significantly less expensive than an equivalent permanent policy but will become higher with age. Policy holders can save to provide for increased term premiums or decrease insurance needs (by paying off debts or saving to provide for survivor needs).[23] Mortgage life insurance insures a loan secured by real property and usually features a level premium amount for a declining policy face value because what is insured is the principal and interest outstanding on a mortgage that is constantly being reduced by mortgage payments. The face amount of the policy is always the amount of the principal and interest outstanding that are paid should the applicant die before the final installment is paid. Group life insurance Group life insurance (also known as wholesale life insurance or institutional life insurance) is term insurance covering a group of people, usually employees of a company, members of a union or association, or members of a pension or superannuation fund. Individual proof of insurability is not normally a consideration in its underwriting. Rather, the underwriter considers the size, turnover, and financial strength of the group. Contract provisions will attempt to exclude the possibility of adverse selection. Group life insurance often allows members exiting the group to maintain their coverage by buying individual coverage. The underwriting is carried out for the whole group instead of individuals. Permanent life insurance Permanent life insurance is life insurance that covers the remaining lifetime of the insured. A permanent insurance policy accumulates a cash value up to its date of maturation. The owner can access the money in the cash value by withdrawing money, borrowing the cash value, or surrendering the policy and receiving the surrender value. The three basic types of permanent insurance are whole life, universal life, and endowment. Whole life Main article: Whole life insurance Whole life insurance provides lifetime coverage for a set premium amount (see main article for a full explanation of the many variations and options). Universal life coverage Universal life insurance (ULl) is a relatively new insurance product, intended to combine permanent insurance coverage with greater flexibility in premium payments, along with the potential for greater growth of cash values. There are several types of universal life insurance policies, including interest-sensitive (also known as “traditional fixed universal life insurance”), variable universal life (VUL), guaranteed death benefit, and has equity-indexed universal life insurance. Universal life insurance policies have cash values. Paid-in premiums increase their cash values; administrative and other costs reduce their cash values. Universal life insurance addresses the perceived disadvantages of whole life—namely that premiums and death benefits are fixed. With universal life, both the premiums and death benefit are flexible. With the exception of guaranteed-death-benefit universal life policies, universal life policies trade their greater flexibility off for fewer guarantees. “Flexible death benefit” means the policy owner can choose to decrease the death benefit. The death benefit can also be increased by the policy owner, usually requiring new underwriting. Another feature of flexible death benefit is the ability to choose option A or option B death benefits and to change those options over the course of the life of the insured. Option A is often referred to as a “level death benefit”; death benefits remain level for the life of the insured, and premiums are lower than policies with Option B death benefits, which pay the policy’s cash value—i.e., a face amount plus earnings/interest. If the cash value grows over time, the death benefits do too. If the cash value declines, the death benefit also declines. Option B policies normally feature higher premiums than option A policies. Endowments Main article: Endowment policy The endowment policy is a life insurance contract designed to pay a lump sum after a specific term (on its ‘maturity’) or on death. Typical maturities are ten, fifteen or twenty years up to a certain age limit. Some policies also pay out in the case of critical illness. Policies are typically traditional with-profits or unit-linked (including those with unitized with-profits funds). Endowments can be cashed in early (or surrendered) and the holder then receives the surrender value which is determined by the insurance company depending on how long the policy has been running and how much has been paid into it. Accidental death Accidental death insurance is a type of limited life insurance that is designed to cover the insured should they die as the result of an accident. “Accidents” run the gamut from abrasions to catastrophes but normally do not include deaths resulting from non-accident-related health problems or suicide. Because they only cover accidents, these policies are much less expensive than other life insurance policies. Such insurance can also be accidental death and dismemberment insurance or AD&D. In an AD&D policy, benefits are available not only for accidental death but also for the loss of limbs or body functions such as sight and hearing. Accidental death and AD&D policies very rarely pay a benefit, either because the cause of death is not covered by the policy or because death occurs well after the accident, by which time the premiums have gone unpaid. To know what coverage they have, insureds should always review their policies. Risky activities such as parachuting, flying, professional sports, or military service are often omitted from coverage. Accidental death insurance can also supplement standard life insurance as a rider. If a rider is purchased, the policy generally pays double the face amount if the insured dies from an accident. This was once called double indemnity insurance. In some cases, triple indemnity coverage may be available. Senior and pre-need products Insurance companies have in recent years developed products for niche markets, most notably targeting seniors in an aging population. These are often low to moderate face value whole life insurance policies, allowing senior citizens to purchase affordable insurance later in life. This may also be marketed as final expense insurance and usually have death benefits between $2,000 and $40,000. One reason for their popularity is that they only require answers to simple “yes” or “no” questions, while most policies require a medical exam to qualify. As with other policy types, the range of premiums can vary widely and should be scrutinized prior to purchase, as should the reliability of the companies. Health questions can vary substantially between exam and no-exam policies. It may be possible for individuals with certain conditions to qualify for one type of coverage and not another.[citation needed] Because seniors sometimes are not fully aware of the policy provisions it is important to make sure that policies last for a lifetime and that premiums do not increase every 5 years as is common in some circumstances.[citation needed] Pre-need life insurance policies are limited premium payment, whole life policies that are usually purchased by older applicants, though they are available to everyone. This type of insurance is designed to cover specific funeral expenses that the applicant has designated in a contract with a funeral home. The policy’s death benefit is initially based on the funeral cost at the time of prearrangement, and it then typically grows as interest is credited. In exchange for the policy owner’s designation, the funeral home typically guarantees that the proceeds will cover the cost of the funeral, no matter when death occurs. Excess proceeds may go either to the insured’s estate, a designated beneficiary, or the funeral home as set forth in the contract. Purchasers of these policies usually make a single premium payment at the time of prearrangement, but some companies also allow premiums to be paid over as much as ten years.

A LEADER IN ATTORNEY, COPY & MESSENGER SERVICES For over two decades, Advanced Attorney Services, Inc. has been a leading Attorney, Copy and Messenger services provider in Southern California. With a wide range of business solutions offered, Advanced is committed to superior service standards by providing our clients with new and innovative methods of operating to ensure the highest quality of services available at competitive rates. If your firm is in need of immediate or same day court service, process service, deposition services, writ services, fax filings, E-Filings, messenger, on or off-site copy services, as well as a wide range of other services, allow Advanced Attorney Services to get the job done right.A lawyer referral service maintains a network of lawyers, and connects people in need of lawyers with its participating attorneys. A potential client who contacts a lawyer referral service is directed to a lawyer who practices in the area of law that is most appropriate for their situation. Some lawyer referral services charge a fee for providing a referral, while others provide referrals at no cost to the prospective client. Many referral services connect prospective clients with lawyers who have agreed to provide a low-cost or free initial consultation.[1] Referral services are often provided by state and local bar associations as a public service. Referral services may also be offered by non-profit organizations and advocacy groups. For-profit referral services[1] may connect lawyers with clients who pay a membership fee, or a fee for successfully referred clients, subject to rules against sharing fees with non-lawyers.[2] Historically, lawyer referral services involved prospective clients contacting a bar association or responding to an advertisement, by placing a telephone call to the service and seeking a referral. [3] With the internet boom in the 1990s, many consumers turned to the web to search for goods and services.[4] A research study released in 2012, shows that 76 percent of adult consumers looking for a lawyer used online resources at some point during the search process.[5]Some referral services provide referrals to lawyers in a broad range of areas of legal practice. Others may focus on referrals within a narrow range of practice areas, or a single practice area.[6] Online lawyer referral services are sometimes called attorney-client matching services. People who contact a service may be matched with one or more attorneys, based upon such factors as area of legal practice and geographic location. Lawyers who participate in these services may pay a fee for participation, a fee for each referral, or in some cases a percentage of the amount charged to a referred client.[7] In some cases the prospective client will be able to choose from a list of referred attorneys, while in other cases the referral will be made to a specific participating lawyer.[8] If a client is unable to afford a lawyer and the legal problem is not a matter that can be handled by a lawyer on a percentage fee basis, some referral services may attempt to match the client with a pro bono lawyer, or direct the client to contact a legal aid organization or law student clinic for help.[9] Ethical issues may arise for lawyers who participate in for-profit referral services, and state rules governing participation can vary significantly.[10][11][12] Some referral services are certified by bar associations,[13] including the American Bar Association.[14] Certified referral services must maintain standards of service as defined by the certifying organization. Among those standards, certification may require that participating lawyers meet minimum standards of experience, or maintain legal malpractice insurance. The American Bar Association provides a list attorney referral services that meet its certification requirements.[15] Some legal associations have expressed concern that lawyer referral services can lead to lawyers trying to undercut each other to get clients, rather than focusing on quality of service and the development of their reputation among their peers.[16] Another concern about lawyer referral services relates to client confidentiality. When a prospective client contacts a lawyer directly about retaining the lawyer’s services, the communication is normally held absolutely confidential under principles of attorney-client privilege. Where a lawyer referral service collects information from a person who is seeking a lawyer, that information will not normally be confidential, raising the possibility that information provided to the referral service will be discoverable by the opposing party in any subsequent litigation.[17] Lawyer referral services may have minimal requirements for participation, and in some cases may not do any verification of a lawyer’s qualification or credentials. As a consequence, it remains necessary for a person who uses a referral service to investigate a lawyer’s qualification before retaining the lawyer.[7] Some controversy also arises from whether professional referral services are anti-competitive in nature.[citation needed] For instance, since Board Certified attorneys often charge a higher hourly rate than other competent general practitioners, if a Lawyer Referral Service requires Board Certification for certain types of referrals, instead of merely providing the public a choice between a Board Certified attorney and a competent attorney who is not Board Certified, the effect may be to restrict competition and restrict public choice and push up consumer prices.[citation needed] State bars, which license attorneys, may be complicit in restricting client choice.[citation needed]

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Fuente: Acontecer Dominicano

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